Kidney stone is a hard mass that forms in one or both kidneys from minerals in the urine, and if large enough, can cause severe pain.
Symptoms of presence of kidney stones
- Unbearable pain in the groin or on the side above the thigh
- Traces of blood when passing urine
- Vomiting and nausea
- Pus when passing urine
- Decreased urine output
- Burning sensation when urinating
- Persistent urge to urinate
What are the causes of kidney stones or how do kidney stones occur?
After your body absorbs the nutrition it needs, the remaining waste products travel through the bloodstream to the kidneys. The waste products get removed from your body through urine. When there is too much of waste and too less liquid in the urine, crystals begin to form which stick together and form solid masses or kidney stones. The reasons of kidney stones forming in the body varies.
There are four main types of kidney stones:
- Calcium stones are the most common form of kidney stones. They are formed when there is too much calcium in the urine. They may form due to an overactive parathyroid gland, an inherited condition called hypercalciuria, kidney disease, some cancers, or a condition called sarcoidosis.
- Struvite Stones: These are horn-shaped and can grow quite large. They are usually caused by urinary tract infection.
- Uric Acid Stones: Uric acid stones are softer than other types of kidney stones. They may occur due to a high-protein low-fibre diet. Patients suffering from gout are found to be at a higher risk to get uric acid stones.
- Cystine Stones: They are caused by a rare hereditary disorder called cystinuria. Cystine stones are larger than other forms of kidney stones and tend to recur.